The wide range of temperature fluctuation in different parts of Iran and the multiplicity of climatic zones make it possible to cultivate a diverse variety of crops, including cereals (wheat, barley, rice, and maize), fruits, vegetables, cotton, sugar beets, sugarcane and etc. Iran’s most delicious vegetables are produced throughout the year. More than 2,000 plant species are grown in Iran; only 100 of which are being used in pharmaceutical industries. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Iran ranks amongst the top 7 countries in producing 22 important agricultural products: it ranks first in pistachio production, second in date production and fourth in apple production worldwide.
It is a large vegetable with thick green or purple leaves that has several forms and grows in a round shape. Cabbages with shiny leaves without any scratch can show the quality. It grows in cold weather with high moisture and tolerant in frosty. Best temperature of the storage is among +1 to +3 °C.
It is a fast-growing plant that grows tall and has crispy leaves with a rigid brain at its center. It has an excellent taste and is often used in salads. Moreover, It is resistant to heat, but after harvest it has a long life. The temperature is good for keeping lettuce between 0 and +2 °C.
Cucumber is a long vegetable with dark green skin and crisp flesh. Cucumber varieties can be classed into 4 types: (1) slicing, (2) pickling, (3) burpless, and (4) space savers for small gardens and containers.
A soft, round, red fruit. The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are commonly used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are widely grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (3–10 ft) in height. The Storage temperature for tomato is among +10 to +14 °C.
Onions are cultivated and used around the world and particularly in fertile soils that are well-drained. Iran is among 5 top producers of onion in the world. As a food item, they are usually served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savory dish, but can also be eaten raw or used to make pickles or chutneys. It is one of the most important and famous vegetables around the world with various types.
The zucchini or courgette is a summer squash which can reach nearly 1 meter in length, but is usually harvested when still immature at about 15 to 25 cm. It can be dark or light green. A related hybrid, the golden zucchini, is a deep yellow or orange color. It is very easy to cultivate in temperate climates. Storage temperature for vernal kind is +0 to +4°C and autumnal kind is +9 to +12 °C.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop which has brown, yellow skin and white flesh. It’s eaten as a vegetable and usually planted in temperate areas. For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness: floury or mealy baking potatoes have more starch (20–22%) than waxy boiling potatoes (16–18%). It is crucial that the storage area is dark, ventilated well and, for long-term storage, maintained at temperatures near 4 °C. For short-term storage, temperatures of about 7 to 10 °C are preferred.
It is a root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. Carrots are grown from seed and can take up to four months (120 days) to mature, but most cultivars mature within 70 to 80 days under the right conditions. They grow best in full sun but tolerate some shade. The optimum temperature is 16 to 21 ° C. Carrots can be stored for several months in the refrigerator or overwinter in a moist, cool place. For long term storage, unwashed carrots can be placed in a bucket between layers of sand, a 50/50 mix of sand and wood shavings, or in the soil. A temperature range of 0 to 5 °C is best. Carrots can be eaten in a variety of ways, uncooked, grated or chopped in salads and is used in soups and stews.
Cauliflower is a type of vegetable that is best used for flowering . it is low in fat and carbohydrates and fiber and contains vitamin B 9, water, and vitamin C is. Cauliflower contains several phytochemicals that are beneficial for human health. Sulforaphane is a compound that protects the body against cancer, Eating Cauliflower can reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable. It is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in hot summer weather. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18 and 23 °C. Actually, It is a nutritional powerhouse full of vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants.
Eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal is originated from the country of India. The spongy, absorbent fruit of the plant is widely used in cooking in many different cuisines, and is often considered a vegetable. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, but, like the potato, it is not advisable to eat it raw. In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown in the garden. Eggplant prefers hot weather, and when grown in cold climates or in areas with low humidity, the plants languish or fail to set and produce mature fruit. Iran is one of the major producers of eggplant worldwide.